Call for donations - Transactional Memory / Automatic Mutual Exclusion in PyPy

UPDATE (April 2014): this is the old Call for Donations about Transactional Memory, kept around for historical purposes. A new Call for Donations is available.


In the presence of today's machines with multiple processors, Python progress is lagging behind: on any CPU-constrained program, developers have a difficult choice to make. They can use in-process solutions that do not offer multi-CPU usage. In this respect, the natural choice nowadays is to use Twisted or other event-based paradigms, or systems that hide events in the control flow, like Stackless; or alternatively, they can use the existing threading module, with its associated GIL and the complexities of real multi-threaded programming (locks, deadlocks, races, etc.), which make this solution less attractive. The big alternative is for them to rely on one of various multi-process solutions that are outside the scope of the core language; all of them in some way or another are hacks that require extra knowledge and time to use and that have an impact on the structure of the whole program.

This proposal is about researching and implementing Transactional Memory in PyPy. This is a technique that recently came to the front of the multi-core scene. It promises to offer multi-core CPU usage without requiring to fall back to the multi-process solutions described above, and also without using the threading module – just as a small, local extension of the programming language that would be used only in the core of the event loops.

(Jump directly to What Python interface will I use? for practical details.)

In more details

This is a call for financial help in researching and implementing a version of PyPy able to use multiple processors in a single process. This will give a GIL-less Python, i.e. a Python that runs without the infamous Global Interpreter Lock.

The basic ideas to do it have been discussed on pypy-dev [1] [2] and on a blog post [3]. The goal is to adapt Transactional Memory – currently only available as software, but soon available as hardware – to the task of running sections of Python code in parallel on multiple processors, while giving the programmer the illusion of serial execution. It is called below “PyPy-TM”.

The main developer will be Armin Rigo. This is a “researchy” goal in the sense of us not being quite sure of the performance of the result. We currently estimate the one-year performance goal at 2x-to-5x slower than regular PyPy in fully serial applications. We feel confident that it can work, though, in the following sense: the performance of PyPy-TM running suited applications should scale linearly or close-to-linearly with the number of processors. This means that you just need a machine with at least 4 or 8 processors, which is already common today and will be even more so in one or two years.

You will find below a sketch of the work plan. If more money than requested is collected, then the excess will be entered into the general PyPy pot, used for example to finance sprint travel costs to students.

Note For donations higher than $1,000, we can arrange for an invoice and a different payment method to avoid the high Paypal fees. Please contact pypy at if you want to know details on how to donate via other means.

What is the Global Interpreter Lock?

The GIL, or Global Interpreter Lock, is a single lock in both CPython and (so far) PyPy, that all threads must acquire in order to execute Python bytecodes. This means that so far, in Python, even when using threads we do not gain any benefit in term of multicore performance.

What is Transactional Memory?

Transactional Memory – TM – is a technique imported from databases: every time we want to do a change to the processors' main memory, we do it in a “transaction”. Multiple transactions can be executed in parallel by multiple cores. When a transaction is complete, we try to commit it. This might either succeed, or (if another transaction committed incompatible changes) fail. If it fails, which is hopefully rare, we need to restart the transaction from scratch.

Why hasn't the idea been implemented for CPython already?

Because of the additional complexity required, and mostly, because of performance issues. There have been some experiments already with CPython on Hardware Transactional Memory:

The motivation for using PyPy instead of CPython is the extra flexibility of the general approach, as well as the ability to utilize the JIT in order to remove part of the overhead that comes with Software Transactional Memory.

A GIL-less Python is impossible.

This is a classic criticism of research-oriented projects. We believe that the work plan below can make a serious impact on considering possible a GIL-less Python. We believe we can do it, but at the very least, even if this work generates a negative result, the negative result will document the challenges faced should someone else want to reattempt the idea in the future.

Nevertheless other projects, such as Psyco (also by Armin) and PyPy itself, were called impossible before they were attempted, and have hitherto been very successful.

Why do it with PyPy instead of CPython?

Because PyPy is designed to be open to this kind of research. This will require no work in the Python interpreter part of PyPy, and instead we can focus on e.g. the concurrent garbage collection and the JIT issues. Riley and Zilles have also experimented with Hardware Transactional Memory using PyPy. By contrast, for example, CPython is stuck with reference counting, which is known to be an issue for Transactional Memory (Tabba proposes to give up and use Boehm, which is a bad idea in our experience, particularly because of scalability issues).

What Python interface will I use?

Previous attempts on Hardware Transactional Memory focused on parallelizing existing programs written using the thread or threading modules. However, as argued here, this may not be the most practical way to achieve real multithreading; it seems that better alternatives would offer good scalability too. Notably, TM could benefit any event-based system that is written to dispatch events serially (Twisted-based, most GUI toolkit, Stackless, gevent, and so on). The events would internally be processed in parallel, while maintaining the illusion of serial execution, with all the corresponding benefits of safety. This should be possible with minimal changes to the event dispatchers. This approach has been described by the Automatic Mutual Exclusion work at Microsoft Research, but not been implemented anywhere (to the best of our knowledge).

Note that, yes, this gives you both sides of the coin: you keep using your non-thread-based program (without worrying about locks and their drawbacks like deadlocks, races, and friends), and your programs benefit from all your cores.

In more details, a low-level built-in module will provide the basics to start transactions in parallel; but this module will be only used internally in a tweaked version of, say, a Twisted reactor. Using this reactor will be enough for your existing Twisted-based programs to actually run on multiple cores. You – as a developer of the Twisted-based program – have only to care about improving the parallelizability of your program (e.g. by splitting time-consuming transactions into several parts; the exact rules will be published in detail once they are known). But the point is that your program is always correct.

See some concrete example of the API.


We estimate the one-year performance target to be 2x-to-5x slower than the performance of the regular PyPy in fully serial applications. (Of course, the regular PyPy will not disappear; for the foreseeable future, PyPy-TM will be an alternative executable.)

The performance of PyPy-TM running suited applications should scale linearly or close-to-linearly with the number of processor. This means that in order to see the benefits, you just need a machine with at least 4 or 8 processors – which is already common today and will be even more so in one or two years.

Hardware Transactional Memory

The performance of PyPy-TM running on Hardware Transactional Memory is unknown so far, but should ideally be close to the performance of a regular PyPy.

In more details: This proposal is for work based entirely on Software Transactional Memory. However, in the future the ideas and most of the code should map directly to Hardware Transactional Memory (HTM). We expect HTM to reduce a lot the cost of some of the issues that we face, but not completely remove it. For example, AMD's old proposal was that there would be two ways to emit memory-referencing instructions: one that goes via the HTM mechanisms, and one (the regular one) which doesn't. Choosing the best one on a case-by-case basis in the JIT makes a difference in performance (although of course not as great as with Software Transactional Memory).

Intel's current proposal on Haswell processors does not have this distinction, which means transactions are likely to quickly overflow the internal buffers. As a result, the first generation HTM-capable processors may not be suited for the approach described here. But this depends on details like the capacity of the hardware buffers that are still secret at this point.

(Note also that HTM does not solve some of the issues for implementing Transactional Memory in CPython, notably the issue with reference counting. We will have to wait for a real CPython experiment before we can settle this question. Also, this would “just” remove the GIL but not offer a multi-core version of non-thread-based programs.)


PyPy-TM will be slower than judicious usage of existing alternatives, based on multiple processes that communicate with each other in one way or another. The counter-argument is that TM is not only a cleaner solution: there are cases in which it is not doable to organize (or retrofit) an existing program into the particular format needed for the alternatives. In particular, small quickly-written programs don't need the additional baggage of cross-process communication, and large programs can sometimes be almost impossible to turn into multi-process versions. By contrast, we believe that TM can fit naturally into most programs, because it only requires local changes to some dispatcher; the rest of the program should work without changes.

Work plan

This is an very rough estimate of the amount of work it would take to complete the steps for an experienced developer who is already familiar with the PyPy codebase. As this is a research proposal, we cannot guarantee the time estimates here, but we do agree to report regularly to the community, so our progress can be followed publicly.

Paid work will be at $60/hour, but at least one developer who will work on the project – Armin Rigo – has committed to 2 hours of volunteer work per paid hour (so the total amount of money that we ask is divided by three). A 5% general donation will go to the Software Freedom Conservancy itself, the non-profit organization of which the PyPy project is a member and which manages all the issues related to donations, payments, and tax-exempt status.

  • STM Library:

    This part covers adapting an existing STM library for PyPy. It is already mostly done (based on rstm), but additional tweaks may be required.

  • Basic tweaks of the translation process:

    This part covers tweaks needed during the translation process in order to generate an STM-aware version of the RPython programs, including PyPy itself. It is partly done, but not finished. Estimate: 1 month.

  • Garbage collection:

    We need a different garbage collector that is able to cope at least with concurrent allocations. From there, improving the situation is its own open-ended subproject: we can add for example various kinds of parallel collection, synchronized or unsynchronized root tracing, etc. Estimate for the basic part: 2 months. Estimate for the rest: 4 extra months.

  • User interface:

    This is the problem of designing and implementing some interface or interfaces for the Python programmer. We put it in its own category because of its “end-user” importance. Estimate: 2 months.

  • JIT integration:

    The above would give us a (probably very slow) version of PyPy-TM. This final part is to integrate it with the JIT compiler generator. The main issue we foresee is integration with the new GC, detecting with object flags or JIT optimizations which objects need transactional memory status or not. We think that with enough such optimizations we can seriously lower the overhead of PyPy-TM, maybe down to 2x slower than a regular PyPy or better. Estimate: unknown; at least 4 months.

  • Longer term:

    In the longer term, we might need to refine the TM processing done above, for example to better support I/O (e.g. we can queue the writes done to a log file) or to add some special fine-grained support (e.g. two transactions that each do samelist.append() do not need to conflict in the simple case). This part is not included in the estimates.

    Note: by default, any I/O can be done, but turns the transaction “inevitable”. An inevitable transaction must not abort, so it must be the next one to commit. This introduces delays at the end of the other CPUs' transactions.

Total: 5 months for the initial version; at least 8 additional months for the fast version. We will go with a total estimate of 15 months, corresponding to USD$151200. The amount sought by this fundraising campaign, considering the 2 volunteer hours per paid hour is thus USD$50400.

Benefits of This Work to the Python Community and the General Public

Python has become one of the most popular dynamic programming languages in the world. Web developers, educators, and scientific programmers alike all value Python because Python code is often more readable and because Python often increases programmer productivity.

Traditionally, languages like Python ran more slowly than static, compiled languages; Python developers chose to sacrifice execution speed for ease of programming. The PyPy project created a substantially improved Python language implementation, including a fast Just-in-time (JIT) compiler. The increased execution speed that PyPy provides has attracted many users, who now find their Python code runs up to four times faster under PyPy than under the reference implementation written in C.

However, in the presence of today's machines with multiple processors, Python progress lags behind. The issue has been described in the introduction: developers that really need to use multiple CPUs are constrained to select and use one of the multi-process solutions that are all in some way or another hacks requiring extra knowledge and efforts to use. The focus of the work described in this proposal is to offer an alternative in the core of the Python language – an alternative that can naturally integrate with the rest of the program. This alternative will be implemented in PyPy.

PyPy's developers make all PyPy software available to the public without charge, under PyPy's Open Source copyright license, the permissive MIT License. PyPy's license assures that PyPy is equally available to everyone freely on terms that allow both non-commercial and commercial activity. This license allows for academics, for-profit software developers, volunteers and enthusiasts alike to collaborate together to make a better Python implementation for everyone.

PyPy-TM will be available under the same license. Being licensed freely to the general public means that opportunities to use, improve and learn about how Transactional Memory works itself will be generally available to everyone.